Macroclimate zones

The Lambda, Kappa, Sigma and Mu climate zones explained in brief ...

Kappa and Lambda

Both zones can be viewed as one from a medical point of view. The proximity to the Baltic creates a mild and stimulating climate with varying bioclimatic intensity and high humidity (88%) with low rainfall.

Extremes of climate usually occur in attenuated form: The average temperatures in winter are relatively high and comparatively low in summer – heat stress, in particular due to humidity, is low. Especially in spring, misty or hazy conditions often occur. On the other hand, the wind blows more frequently and strongly. The air is particularly pure and has a very low sea salt content.

Precipitation in the Lambda is somewhat lower than in the Kappa (40 mm/year).


This macroclimatic zone is also characterised by its proximity to the Baltic: The Sigma zone has several considerable elevations that are highly exposed to the wind.

The Sigma zone has higher mean rainfall and slightly lower average temperatures – and accordingly a higher relative humidity.


This macroclimate zone is approximately 100 km inland from the Baltic coast. Maritime and continental influences often alternate here – with maritime influences predominating.

Temperature extremes are attenuated and delayed compared to lowland areas further inland with a more continental climate. The wind speeds are lower and the air humidity is high.